VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.
Understanding the Unsaid Enhancing Multicultural
Michael A. Mariska and Laura K. Harrawood
Nonverbal communication has a primary role in emotional expression and a demonstrated impact on the counseling relationship. Nonverbal communication can vary cross-culturally and can influence the formation of a therapeutic relationship with culturally diverse clients. This article briefly explores the existing research in counseling and related fields and notes the dearth of research on nonverbal awareness and skills training in counselor education. A review of key differences in nonverbal communication across cultures, an outline of basic skills that can be taught to counselors-in-training, and in-class training activities are provided. The authors call for an increased focus on nonverbal communication awareness and skills training in counselor education research and training programs to enhance multicultural competence.