Vistas Online 2012

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.


The Importance of Understanding Cultural Competence and Identity Development in African American Adolescent Females to Enhance Productivity in Counseling

Kenycia Byrd


The image of the African American woman has been defined differently over time. This change could possibly have a direct effect on African American adolescents. For this paper, adolescents will refer to those 12-17 years of age. As shown in the literature, African American adolescent females are more receptive to group counseling techniques which give the girls a chance to be around adolescents with similar views and experiences. Also found in the research, African American adolescent girls have been found to be more open with minority group facilitators. This gives the adolescents a sense of understanding and safety (Ford et al., 1993). Through this paper, I plan to discuss the historical image of an African American woman, common themes found in the literature pertaining to African American females, identity development in African American adolescent females, effective theoretical frameworks, and the importance of multicultural competence in counselors of African American adolescents.

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