Vistas Online 2011

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.


Racial Identity of Minority Adolescents: A Review of Empirical Research

Kun Wang


According to Erik Erikson, the basic task for adolescents is to explore and create a more complete identity (Miller, 2002). Adolescence is the developmental period in which there are increases in autonomy, physiological changes, and cognitive gains. Youth are exposed to a greater variety of situations and experiences (Neblett, Smalls, Ford, Nguyen, & Sellers, 2009). They have to negotiate an identity that is appropriate for the new needs, skills, and goals. This process can be complicated by one’s minority-group status (Miller, 2002). With increased exposure to the world, race becomes increasingly salient for minority adolescents. They are pressured to consider the personal significance and meaning of race (Neblett et al., 2009). Therefore, the process of racial identity development in this period is very important for their identity integration.

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