Vistas Online 2010

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.


Multiculturally Sensitive Mental Health Scale (MSMHS: Development, Factor Analysis, Reliability, and Validity

Ruth Chu-lien Chao, Amber N. Olson, Katie Z. Spaventa and Christine Smith


Discrimination due to race is a culture-related stressor, thus the level of racism is a critical variable in understanding the mental health of African Americans and other ethnic minority groups (Constantine & Sue, 2006; Utsey, Chae, Brown, & Kelly, 2002). Unfortunately, most current mental health measures are extrapolated from Whites’ perceptions of mental distress (Sue & Sue, 2008) and fail to include assessment of mental health stressors due to discrimination or perceived racism. Culturally sensitive assessment of mental health should include measuring perceived racism. The present study developed the Multiculturally Sensitive Mental Health Scale (MSMHS) to respond to the need to assess African Americans’ mental health, including perceptions of racism.

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