VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.
The Impact of Relaxation Techniques on Third Grade Students' Self-Perceived Levels of Test Anxiety
Colleen M. Johnson, Heidi A. Larson, Steven R. Conn, Lincoln A. Estes, and Amanda B. Ghibellini
Anxiety is a phenomenon that human beings routinely encounter within their daily experience. It is considered to be one of the most prevalent and pervasive human emotions, with a large sector of the world’s population suffering from excessive and overbearing levels. Anxiety can be described as a perceived notion of psychological distress which occurs due to the expectation of a disconcerting and potentially threatening event. Although extensive research has focused on the concept of anxiety, it cannot be defined by purely objective or concrete means (Rachman, 2004). As a result of the ubiquitous nature of anxiety, the construct has been defined as different subtypes (e.g., social anxiety, state-trait anxiety). The focus of the present study was on one other such subtype, namely, test anxiety.