VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.
Understanding Intergenerational Attachment Disorders: The Use of Filial Therapy and Child Parent Relationship Therapy When Treating Insecure Attachment Styles
Erin E. Martin
Researchers have thoroughly defined attachment. Currently understood, attachment is conceptualized as a bond created by the parent (primary caregiver) and the child. Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1979, 1980, 1982) and Ainsworth (1973, 1978, 1989) began the early researches and works in the study of attachment. According to Bowlby (1988), “Attachment theory is a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression, and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise” (p.5). Based upon Bowlby’s attachment theory, the focus on attachment rests upon two attachment styles, secure and insecure, with insecure attachment styles encompassing various subtypes. An individual who possesses a secure attachment style often views their world as safe and/or protected; whereas an individual who possesses an insecure attachment style often views their world as unsafe and/or dangerous. These attachment styles, although distinct in nature, have been said to persist across generations.