Vistas Online 2006

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.


Ethnic Minority Clients' Perceptions of Racism-Related Stress in Presenting Problems

Ruth Chao


Ethnic minority clients’ racism-related stress has been a major focus in mental health profession. Counselors are often urged to develop sensitivity on the relationship between racism and psychological distress, for clients’ mental health issues may be associated with discrimination and oppression (e.g., ethnocentrism, racism). Racism involves the beliefs, attitudes, institutional arrangements, and acts that unfairly classify individuals or groups because of their phenotypic or ethnic affiliation; it also involves an undesirable relationship between members of oppressed groups (e.g., Asian Americans) and non-oppressed groups (e.g., White) (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams, 1999).

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