VISTAS Counseling Veterans and Military Families

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Comparison of Civilian Trauma and Combat Trauma

Kristin A. Vincenzes


In an attempt to understand the impacts of multiple deployments on military service members, the author illustrates a comparison between civilian traumas and combat traumas. Furthermore, civilian single and multiple traumatic experiences are compared to military single and multiple traumas as experienced by veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The author presents a literature review to compare these traumas in an effort to decipher potential differences in military veterans. Implications for counselors and researchers are noted.

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