VISTAS Multicultural Issues in Counseling

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Struggling Between Two Cultures: What Is to Become of the Identity of Hmong Women?

Song E. Lee


The Hmong people have been arriving in the United States since 1975. There are over 169,000 Hmong in the United States, and currently 15,000 more from refugee camps in Thailand have been permitted to enter the United States (Wisinfo, 2004). Like many Asian cultures, honor, respect, and family take precedence over individual desires in the Hmong culture. Moreover, men take precedence over women (Vang, 2003). Men and elders have more influence in family and individual matters than women (Donnelly, 1994).

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