VISTAS Effective Counseling Interventions, Tools, and Techniques

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Difference Does Not Imply Deviance: Limitations of the use of Standardized Personality Measures for the First Nations Mental Health Patients: A Pilot Study

Elisabeth Haramic, Rita Sousa, and Saadia Ahmad


First Nations/Alaskan Natives are represented by around 512 tribes and speak more then 200 languages (Allen, 2002). By the end of the eighteenth century only 10% of the original population number remains due to the slaughter and invasion of the Caucasian race. This is one of the cruelest acts upon a people whose land was seized, goods taken away, children removed from their homes and placed with non-Indian families, in the history of humanity (Sue & Sue, 2005). The attempt to “civilize the savages” by assimilating them into the mainstream culture proved a failure. The slow destruction of their culture, beliefs and language resulted in weakening the psychological as well as physical health of this population. Additionally, the mental health emic approach further deteriorated the well-being of the First Nations by imposing ethnocentric values and beliefs onto this population.

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