VISTAS Effective Counseling Interventions, Tools, and Techniques

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Spirituality Assessments: Limitations and Recommendations

David R. Brown, Elise P. Johnson, and Mark S. Parrish


Since the early 1980’s, increased attention has been given to the integration of spirituality into the counseling profession (Cashwell, Bentley, & Yarborough, 2007; Cashwell & Young, 2004; Kelly, Jr., 1994; Miller & Thoresen, 2003; Pate, Jr. & High, 1995). Interest in such an integration of spirituality and counseling first appeared in the late nineteenth century in professional literature through the work of Frank Parsons and Francis Galton (cited in McCormick, 2004). However, it was not until the 1980’s, when spirituality was described as a multicultural issue, that professionals began integrating spirituality into graduate-level counseling courses (Curtis & Glass, 2002; Souza, 2002), holistic wellness models (Adams, Bezner, Drabbs, Zambarano, & Steinhardt, 2000; Sweeney & Witmer, 1991), and assessment instruments (Hall & Edwards, 2002; Hill & Hood, Jr., 1999; Slater, Hall, & Edwards, 2001; Stanard, et al., 2000). Although counseling professionals are beginning to respond to the spiritual needs of the United States’ population, according to recent research by Young, Wiggins-Frame, and Cashwell (2007) interest in integrating spirituality into the counseling profession has increased, but a full integration of spirituality into counseling has not been realized. Additionally, the educational and training response by the counseling profession has not kept pace.

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