VISTAS Effective Counseling Interventions, Tools, and Techniques

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Social Advocacy: Assessing the Impact of Training on the Development and Implementation of Advocacy Plans

David D. Hof, Thomas R. Scofield, and Julie A. Dinsmore


According to Lee and Walz (1998), a social advocate is “called upon to channel energy and skill into helping clients challenge institutional and social barriers that impede academic, career, or personal-social development” (p. 9). As noted by Lewis, Lewis, Daniels, and D’Andrea (2003), challenges to such barriers may be overcome by providing direct (working with) or indirect (working on behalf of) services on the individual, institutional, community, or societal levels. Among mental health professionals there has been a longstanding tradition of social advocacy that can be traced to the early 1900s and the emergence of the Mental Hygiene Movement (Kiselica & Robinson, 2001).

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