VISTAS Counselor Education and Supervision

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Counseling Students' Experience of the Supervisory Relationship

Yaser Madani, Nathalie Kees, Laurie Carlson, and John Littrell


Studying the relationship between supervisors and their counseling students provides a rich contextual framework that can be used to get a better understanding of a student's experiences during supervision. The supervisory relationship is characterized as mutually enriching, where the unconscious of both the supervisor and supervisee interact (Driver & Martin, 2005). Ratliff, Wampler, and Morris (2000) have characterized the interactional pattern that is seen between supervisors and their trainees as negotiation and collaboration, in which the trainees struggle to present themselves as competent and cooperative.

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