VISTAS Counselor Education and Supervision

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Integrating a Developmental Supervision Model With the Adaptive Supervision in Counselor Training Model

Tiffany K. Lee


The behaviors displayed and statements articulated during supervision are a function of the supervisee’s current stage of development (Loganbill, Hardy, & Delworth, 1982). The various forms of supervisee resistance often result when the supervisory style does not match the supervisee’s readiness level or developmental stage (Rando, 2001). By integrating the use of the Loganbill et al. Developmental Model and the Adaptive Supervision in Counselor Training Model, supervisors can potentially (a) reduce the amount of resistance presented during supervision, (b) facilitate supervisee readiness, and (c) assist supervisees to progress to the next developmental stage.

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