VISTAS Counselor Education and Supervision

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

The Effects of Observation on Self-Efficacy and Satisfaction of Pre-Licensed Counselors

Neal D. Gray, Paul Erickson, and Zareena Kehkashan


This study investigated whether the frequency of direct observation of clinical skills (live, videotape, or audiotape) that occurs in the supervision experience affects pre-licensed counselors’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with the supervision experience. The results suggest that self-efficacy is affected by more frequent direct observation of clinical skills; however, supervisees did not report significantly higher levels of satisfaction when their clinical skills were directly observed more often during supervision.

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