VISTAS Client Characteristics and Needs

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Transgenders, Vestidas, Hijra, Kathoey: Responding to Cultural Expressions of Gender Identity

Stacee L. Reicherzer, Harry Benjamin, Jason L. Patton, and Megan Steves


It is important to note…that sexual and gender identities that are not accepted by Western civilization are not necessarily unnatural….human societies exhibit a wide range of norms and beliefs about what natural sexual or gender identities may be and be about. Forms of sexuality considered to be perverse by one social or cultural group are considered to be right, good, useful and natural by others and can indeed serve useful purposes (i.e., enhance survival and well-being.)

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