VISTAS Counseling Children and Adolescents

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Ethics, Laws, and Adolescents: Confidentiality, Reporting, and Conflict

M. Sherrill Luther Pitcairn and Kristi Ann Phillips


Mental health professionals know that ethics and laws sometimes conflict on issues of confidentiality, and with minors the situation becomes even more confounded. The American School Counselor Association Ethical Standards (1998) posit that “…each person has the right to privacy and thereby the right to expect the counselor-counselee relationship to comply with all laws, policies, and ethical standards pertaining to confidentiality” (Preamble). This is a tall order and may not always get accomplished with clarity and confidence. Counselors can quickly get squeezed between the pressures of statutes, rights of family members, professional ethics, and personal integrity

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