VISTAS Career Counseling and Development

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

Career Counseling of Immigrants and Refugees

Aneneosa A. G. Okocha


In spite of the tragedies of September 11, 2001, the United States (U.S.) continues to experience influx of immigrants and refugees. It is estimated that about four million immigrants and refugees came to the U.S. between 2002 and 2005 (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2005). These individuals arrived from Africa, Asia, Canada, Central America, Europe, and Oceania. Additionally, according to the U.S. 2002 Census, it is believed the foreign-born population ranged between 28 to 31 million, with one in ten people being an immigrant or a refugee (U.S. Bureau of Census, 2002)

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