VISTAS Animal Assisted Therapy

VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for ACA by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 900 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to 2017.

An Arena for Success: Metaphor Utilization in Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

Sandra L. Kakacek


Reviews of counseling approaches indicate a wide variance from several having little impact on youth, to some efficacy with behavioral parent training, cognitivebehavioral therapy, and functional family therapy (Borduin, 1999). The success of treatment approaches was defined by Henggeler and Sheidow (2003) in a review of over 500 treatment designs. They concluded that only three programs, which were multisystemic, reduced criminal behavior. Further studies stated that they were four primary factors that contributed to positive behavioral changes with adjudicated youth: client factors, relationship factors, hope, and model techniques (Clark, 2001).

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